How are CNC machines and equipment maintained?

2021-03-23 12:37:11 admin

Appropriate actual operation and maintenance of CNC machinery and equipment can avoid abnormal damage to the machine tool and prevent sudden and common failures of the machine tool. Careful maintenance of the machine tool can maintain the long-term stability of the production and processing accuracy of the machine tool and increase the service life of the machine tool. In this work, we must pay attention to and implement it from the management method of the processing plant!




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▌ Responsible person for maintenance


1. The actual operation staff undertake the application, maintenance and basic maintenance of machinery and equipment;


2. Equipment maintenance staff shall undertake the overhaul and necessary maintenance of machinery and equipment;


3. The technical personnel of the production workshop shall be responsible for the supervision of all operators and equipment maintenance management in all production workshops.


▌ Basic regulations for the application of CNC machinery


1. Numerical control machinery stipulates to prevent dampness, coldness, excessive smoke and dust, and places with corrosive vapor;


2. To prevent immediate direct sunlight and other radiant heat, high-precision numerical control machinery must eliminate large-vibration machinery and equipment, such as high-speed punching machines, forging equipment, etc.;


3. The operating temperature of machinery and equipment should be controlled between 15 degrees and 35 degrees. The temperature of precision machining should be controlled at around 20 degrees, and temperature fluctuations should be strictly controlled;


4. In order to prevent the switching power supply from fluctuating strongly (more than 10% of the positive and negative poles) and instant electromagnetic interference and other hazards, CNC machinery generally selects a dedicated line transportation power supply system (such as a separate power supply room from the power distribution room for independent CNC machine tools). Application), adding voltage regulator tube equipment, etc., can reduce the hazard of the power supply system quality and the impact of electrical equipment.


▌ Maintain production and processing accuracy in normal times


1. After starting, be sure to heat up and down for 10 minutes, and then produce and process; equipment that is not needed for a long time should increase the heating time;


2. Check whether the fuel pipe is unobstructed;


3. Place the console and seat board on the central government part of the equipment before standby (moving the three-axis stroke arrangement to the middle part of the stroke arrangement of each axis);


4. The machine tool maintains dry cleaning.


▌ Daily maintenance


1. Clean up the dust and iron pins of the machine tool every day: including the machine operation panel, spindle taper hole, tool cart, blade and taper handle, tool magazine arm and magazine, CNC punch; XY axis sheet metal protection cover, inside the machine tool Flexible plastic hoses, tank chain equipment, cutting grooves, etc.;


2. Check the height-to-width ratio of the grease level to ensure that the machine tool is lubricated;


3. Check if the freezing liquid in the freezing liquid tank is sufficient, and if it is insufficient, add it immediately;


4. Check if the gas pressure is normal;


5. Check the gas blowing of the cone hole in the spindle to check whether everything is normal. Use a clean cotton cloth to scrub the cone hole in the spindle and spray light oil;


6. Clean the tool arm and CNC blade of the tool magazine, especially the claw;


7. Check whether all signal indicators and abnormal alarm lights are normal;


8. Check whether the steam pressure module pipe is leaking;


9. Carry out cleaning work after the machine tool is working every day;


10. Keep the equipment surroundings clean and tidy.


▌ Maintenance every week


1. Clean the gas filter screen of the heat exchanger, the filter screen of the cooling pump and the lubrication pump;


2. Check whether the pull bolt of the CNC blade is loose and whether the knife is cleaned;


3. Check whether the starting point of the three-axis mechanical equipment is offset;


4. Check whether the posture of the tool changer arm of the tool magazine or the rotation of the tool magazine spindle is smooth;


5. If there is an oil cooler, check the oil-cooled oil, if it is less than the scale line, please fill it with oil-cooled oil immediately;


6. Clean up the residue and moisture in the compressed air, check the remaining oil in the welding fume separation equipment, check whether everything is normal in the work of relays from all walks of life, check the airtightness in the pneumatic system, and immediately harm due to the quality of the air supply system software Tool change and air intake system;


7. Avoid dust and waste from entering the CNC machine tool equipment. The gas in the machining workshop usually contains welding fumes, dust and even metal powder. Once they fall on the circuit board or electronic components in the CNC machine tool, it is very easy to cause the indirect resistance of the components to decrease, and even cause the electronic components. And the circuit board is destroyed.


▌ Monthly maintenance


1. Inspect the lubrication condition of the shaft rail, and the rail surface must ensure that the lubrication is good;


2. Check and clean the limit power switch and its bumper;


3. Check whether the oil mark of the knife cylinder is sufficient, and if it is not enough, add it immediately;


4. Check whether the identification plate on the equipment and the factory nameplate are clear and exist.


▌ Maintenance for half a year


1. Remove the shaft anti-chip protection cover, clean the shaft oil pipe joints, the steel ball guide extruder screw, the three-axis travel switch, and check if everything is normal. Check whether the actual effect of the hard track scraper blades of each axis is good;


2. Check whether the servo motors of each axis and the top of the head are all operating normally, and whether there is any abnormal noise;


3. Dismantle and replace the steam pressure module oil, and reduce the speed of the tool magazine to organize the oil;


4. Detect the gap of each axis, and adjust the compensation amount when necessary;


5. Clean the dust in the electric box (ensure that the machine tool is turned off);


6. Check all contacts, connectors, power sockets, and power switches to see if everything is normal;


7. Check whether all the function keys are smart and everything is normal;


8. Check and adjust the level of machinery and equipment;


9. Clean the drilling water storage tank and replace the cutting oil.


▌ Technical professional maintenance or repair this year


Note: Technical professional maintenance or repairs should be carried out by technical professional technical engineers.


1. The protective grounding system software must have intact and undamaged continuity to ensure life safety;


2. Carry out timely inspections of original gas parts such as isolation switches, AC contactors, single-phase power or three-phase arc extinguishers. If the wiring is loose and the noise is too loud, find the reason and remove the hidden danger;


3. Ensure that all the cooling fans in the electric cabinet are operating normally, otherwise the original gas parts may be destroyed;


4. The fuse is blown and the air leakage switch frequently trips. The cause should be found and removed immediately;


5. Check the vertical accuracy of each axis and adjust the geometrical accuracy of the machine tool. Repair or comply with machine tool regulations. Because the accuracy of the geometrical figure is the basis of the comprehensive performance of the machine tool. For example: XZ, YZ flatness is not good will endanger the parallelism and symmetry of the production and processing of steel parts, the flatness of the spindle to the cabinet countertop is not good, it will endanger the flatness of the production and processing of steel parts. Therefore, repairing the accuracy of geometric figures is the top priority of people's maintenance;


6. Check the damage and clearance of the motors and screw rods of each axis, and check whether the rolling bearings at the supporting points on both sides of each axis are damaged. When the coupling or rolling bearing is destroyed, it will increase the operating noise of the machine tool, endanger the accuracy of the machine tool's transmission system, destroy the screw refrigeration seal ring, cause cutting oil leakage, and seriously harm the service life of the screw and spindle;


7. Check the protective cover of each axis and replace it when necessary. If the protective cover is not good, it will accelerate the damage of the slide rail immediately. If there is a large deformation, it will not only increase the load of the machine tool, but also cause great damage to the slide rail;


8. Straightening of the screw rod, because some customers may cause the screw rod to deform after the impact of the machine tool or the gap of the plug iron is not good, which immediately jeopardizes the production and processing accuracy of the machine tool. People first release the pressure screw to make sure that the place is of course, and then install the screw according to the maintenance technical specifications to ensure that the screw will not receive radial force as much as possible during the fitness exercise, so that the screw is also in the process of production and processing. Happening; 


9. Check and adjust the belt transmission device of the machine tool spindle, adjust the tightness of the V-belt appropriately to avoid the machine tool from deviating or losing rotation during production and processing. If necessary, remove and replace the spindle V-belt, and check the 1000r/min spindle high and low gear What is the remaining oil in the changed roller cylinder. Add when necessary. Less oil will lead to common failures during low gear shifting, which will seriously harm the roughness of cutting production and processing, and reduce the drilling torque;


10. Cleaning and adjustment of the tool magazine. Adjust the rotation of the tool magazine so that it is parallel to the countertop of the cabinet, remove and replace the circlip when necessary, adjust the angle of view of the spindle fixed bridge and the rotation index of the tool magazine, and add grease to each fitness exercise component;


11. Avoid over-temperature of the system software: Check whether every radiator fan in the CNC machine cabinet is working properly. Check whether the air duct filter device is blocked. If too much dust accumulates on the filter screen and it is not removed immediately, it will cause the temperature in the CNC machine cabinet to be too high;


12. Maintenance of the input/output equipment of the CNC machine tool: check whether the transmission power cord of the machine tool is damaged, whether the socket and connector screws and nuts are loose, whether the network cable is firmly inserted, and the wireless router is cleaned and maintained;


13. On-time inspection and replacement of the carbon brushes of the DC motor: Excessive damage of the carbon brushes of the DC motor will endanger the characteristics of the motor and even cause the motor to be destroyed. Therefore, to solve the problem of timely inspection and replacement of motor carbon brushes, machining centers, cnc milling machines, CNC machining centers, etc., should be inspected once a year;


14. Check and replace the rechargeable battery for storage on time: In general CNC machine tools, there is a power supply circuit for the maintenance of the rechargeable lithium battery under the CMOS RAM memory chip, in order to ensure that the content of the memory chip can be maintained during the period when the power is not connected. Under normal circumstances, even if it is not invalid, it should be replaced once a year to ensure that the system software is working normally. The rechargeable battery should be removed and replaced in the case of the power supply system of the CNC machine tool to prevent the information content in the RAM from being lost during the removal;


15. Clean the electrical components in the control box, check and tighten the tightening of the terminal block; clean and clean the CNC machine tool modules, circuit boards, cooling fans, filters, heat pipe heat dissipation, etc.; clean the internal components of the control panel, circuit boards, Cooling fan, check the tightening of the connector.